By Souvik Tewari,
Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are good for human health, specially for digestive system. Human body is full of bacteria, both good and bad. Probiotics are often called “good” or “helpful” bacteria because they help keep our gut healthy. The health promoting benefits and efficacy of probiotics has been demonstrated in many models of gastrointestinal disease. Probiotics have an antimicrobial effect through modifying micro flora, secreting antibacterial substances, competing with pathogens and bad microorganism to prevent their adhesion, competing with nutrients necessary for pathogen survival, producing an antitoxin effect and reversing some of the consequences of infection on the gut epithelium. Fermented milks, kulfi, cheese, enriched yoghurt, yoghurt-like products are the commonly used Probiotic food preparation.
Cheese is one of the most successful probiotic dairy products that have high potential to carry bacteria. The number of probiotic bacteria in cheese can be more than 10 million and this microbial mass in cheese have more protective effects on probiotic bacteria in comparison to yogurt because of its chemical and physical properties such as low pH, high buffering capacity, high nutrients and high fat levels. Therefore, cheese has been one of the main sources of probiotic microorganisms. Effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei and oregano on Staphylococcus aureus in white cheese have been investigated, according to the results, the best concentration of essential oils for inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus growth and production of desirable flavor properties was acquired when probiotic bacteria were added.
Yoghurt is a fermentative dairy product which is made of milk and is produced by lactic acid bacteria. In production of yoghurt two starters are used including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. But none of the above can survive the digestive tract, thus are not able to provide probiotic properties since they’re destroyed under acidic conditions. Acid-resistant species must be used. Yoghurt is produced by adding probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the presence or the absence of starter. Many types of yoghurt with different probiotics have been produced around the world.
Ice cream is one of the safe, nutritional and frozen dairy products which is widely consumed around the world and since it causes a great deal of happiness, it has many fans. Considering its nutritional values, ice cream is a great source of essential amino acids of milk proteins, vitamins and minerals, and its components are easily digested and absorbed in the body. Probiotic microorganisms are added to the ice cream mixture in producing fermentative ice cream.
Each year gastrointestinal infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates it to be more than four billion episodes of diarrheal disease annually, while there were 2.2 million deaths attributable to diarrheal disease in 2004, making it the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Probiotics have been used in the treatment and prevention of many forms of diarrheal disease.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a term applied to a group of bowel disorders in which inflammation is a major feature, but where there is no proven evidence that infection is the causative agent. Incorporation of probiotic bacteria has an ability to become stable the immunological barrier in the gut mucosa by declining the generation of local pro-inflammatory cytokines. Probiotics is used for treatment of the inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and Pouchitis.
Lactose intolerance is a physiological state in human beings where they lack the ability to produce an enzyme named lactase or β-galactosidases. This lactase is essential to assimilate the disaccharide in milk and needs to be split into glucose and galactose. Individuals lacking lactase are not being able to digest milk and it often poses a problem in newborn infants. People with lactose intolerance problem express abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, cramps, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, etc. A person suffering from lactose intolerance is advised to take non-milk diet. Probiotics is used for treatment of the Lactose intolerance problem.
(Author: Souvik Tewari
PhD scholar in Food science and Technology, Dept. of Warner College of Dairy Technology, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj, U.P. firstname.lastname@example.org, +919002435977)
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